Maimonides (1135–1204 AD) observed: "The basic symptoms that occur in pneumonia and that are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking pleuritic pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse and cough. In addition, a cough is frequently absent in children less than 2 months old. [27], Pneumonia is due to infections caused primarily by bacteria or viruses and less commonly by fungi and parasites. [54] In adults with normal vital signs and a normal lung examination, the diagnosis is unlikely. Although more than 100 strains of infectious agents have been identified, only a few are responsible for the majority of cases. [34][70] Although positive blood culture and pleural fluid culture definitively establish the diagnosis of the type of micro-organism involved, a positive sputum culture has to be interpreted with care for the possibility of colonisation of respiratory tract. [96] There is insufficient evidence to recommend that the general population take vitamin C to prevent pneumonia. Virus adalah penyebab pneumonia yang paling sering terjadi pada anak-anak di bawah usia 5 tahun. [72] Pneumonia is most commonly classified by where or how it was acquired: community-acquired, aspiration, healthcare-associated, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Votre médecin vous donnera des conseils sur les moyens de soulager les symptômes d'une pneumonie virale. Conditions d’utilisation. Pneumonia adalah peradangan paru-paru yang disebabkan oleh infeksi. [61] Worldwide, approximately 7–13% of cases in children result in hospitalization,[22] whereas in the developed world between 22 and 42% of adults with community-acquired pneumonia are admitted. [2] X-ray findings typically clear within four weeks and mortality is low (less than 1%). [84], When influenza outbreaks occur, medications such as amantadine or rimantadine may help prevent the condition, but they are associated with side effects. [23], In 2008, pneumonia occurred in approximately 156 million children (151 million in the developing world and 5 million in the developed world). La pneumonie bactérienne est le plus souvent causée par la bactérie Streptococcus pneumoniae (le pneumocoque). (Kode ICD X Pneumonia : J18.9) [12][22][133] Countries with the greatest burden of disease include India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million). [101][113][114] The use of fluoroquinolones in uncomplicated cases is discouraged due to concerns about side-effects and generating resistance in light of there being no greater benefit. ASI dapat memberikan manfaat pada tekanan darah. [2] It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms resolve. [22][23], Bacterial and viral cases of pneumonia usually result in similar symptoms. [27] While the throat always contains bacteria, potentially infectious ones reside there only at certain times and under certain conditions. [28] Specifically, 23% had one or more viruses, 11% had one or more bacteria, 3% had both bacterial and viral pathogens, and 1% had a fungal or mycobacterial infection. [9] In elderly people, confusion may be the most prominent sign. Antibiotik adalah obat pneumonia yang digunakan untuk mengatasi pneumonia yang disebabkan oleh bakteri. [20] In an active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville from January 2010 through June 2012, 2259 patients were identified who had radiographic evidence of pneumonia and specimens that could be tested for the responsible pathogen. Salah satu diantaranya adalah berdasarkan cara perolehannya, yang dapat digolongkan kedalam fua kategori, yaitu "community-acquired" (diperoleh diluar institusi kesehatan) dan "hospital-acquired" (diperoleh di rumah sakit atau sarana kesehatan lainnya). [53] As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses simultaneously affect other organs and thus disrupt other body functions. [20] A number of drug-resistant versions of the above infections are becoming more common, including drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). En fait, les mêmes virus qui causent le rhume et la grippe peuvent aussi causer la pneumonie. Pada penderita Pneumonia, sekumpulan kantong udara kecil di ujung saluran pernapasan dalam paru-paru akan membengkak dan dipenuhi dengan cairan. [60], In general, in adults, investigations are not needed in mild cases. [12][13] Many of these deaths occur in the newborn period. [53] The invasion of the lungs may lead to varying degrees of cell death. Les personnes atteintes d'affections pulmonaires chroniques ou dont le système immunitaire est affaibli courent généralement un risque plus élevé de pneumonie. [108] Regarding circulatory problems as part of sepsis, evidence of poor blood flow or low blood pressure is initially treated with 30 ml/kg of crystalloid infused intravenously. [8] The disease may be classified by where it was acquired, such as community- or hospital-acquired or healthcare-associated pneumonia. Pneumonia-masyarakat (community-acquired pneumonia) adalah pneumonia yang terjadi akibat infeksi diluar rumah sakit , sedangkan pneumonia nosokomial adalah pneumonia yang terjadi >48 jam atau lebih setelah dirawat di rumah sakit, baik di ruang rawat umum ataupun di ICU tetapi tidak sedang menggunakan ventilator. Les enfants de moins de 3 ans sont également plus à risque de contracter une pneumonie car leurs défenses pulmonaires sont plus fragiles.. Les causes de la maladie. La pneumonie provoque toujours une toux, et celle-ci est souvent productive, c'est-à-dire qu'elle s'accompagne d'expectorations. Pada umumnya, respon positif akan terlihat dalam waktu 1-3 hari. [20], People with infectious pneumonia often have a productive cough, fever accompanied by shaking chills, shortness of breath, sharp or stabbing chest pain during deep breaths, and an increased rate of breathing. [23][27] Examination of the chest may be normal, but it may show decreased expansion on the affected side. Sedangkan pada bronkopneumonia, lokasi terjadinya peradangan berada di alveolus yang merupakan ruang-ruang kecil setelah cabang bronkiolus sebagai ruang penyimpanan … Dans des conditions normales, le système immunitaire combat efficacement ces bactéries. [20][41] It is most often caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci (pneumocystis pneumonia, or PCP), and Coccidioides immitis. [34], A CT scan can give additional information in indeterminate cases. [148], Several developments in the 1900s improved the outcome for those with pneumonia. Tuberkulosis (TB) paru adalah tuberkulosis yang menyerang jaringan paru ... (pneumonia, bronkiektasis dll) Dalam hal ini berikan dahulu antibiotik selama 2 minggu, kemudian dievaluasi.- Infeksi jamur- TB paru kambuh. Bronkopneumonia adalah gangguan pada paru-paru yang disebabkan oleh peradangan yang terjadi pada anak-anak. [27] A minority of types of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila reach the lungs via contaminated airborne droplets. Certaines infections pulmonaires bactériennes s'installent en quelques heures à peine. [82] The CDC recommends that young children and adults over the age of 65 receive the pneumococcal vaccine, as well as older children or younger adults who have an increased risk of getting pneumococcal disease. [12] The use of corticosteroids is controversial. [57], In children, low oxygen levels and lower chest indrawing are more sensitive than hearing chest crackles with a stethoscope or increased respiratory rate. Microaspiration of contaminated secretions can infect the lower airways and cause pneumonia. [43] These organisms typically enter the body through direct contact with the skin, ingestion, or via an insect vector. [12][13] Rates are greatest in children less than five, and adults older than 75 years. [44], Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia or noninfectious pneumonia[45] is a class of diffuse lung diseases. [65], Physical examination may sometimes reveal low blood pressure, high heart rate, or low oxygen saturation. [12] Nevertheless, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death in developing countries, and also among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill.[12][19] Pneumonia often shortens the period of suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend". [98] There is no good evidence that one approach to mouth care is better than others in preventing nursing home acquired pneumonia. Harsh breath sounds from the larger airways that are transmitted through the inflamed lung are termed bronchial breathing and are heard on auscultation with a stethoscope. [70] Side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids include high blood sugar. Par contre, si le système immunitaire est affaibli par un virus présent dans le pharynx, ces bactéries peuvent envahir les voies respiratoires. [108] The main impact is on the respiratory and the circulatory system. [8] Chest X-rays, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. [71], Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and malnutrition) can decrease the risk of pneumonia. [24][84][87] In children less than 6 months of age, exclusive breast feeding reduces both the risk and severity of disease. In 2012 the estimated aggregate costs of treating pneumonia in the United States were $20 billion;[153] the median cost of a single pneumonia-related hospitalization is over $15,000. [146][147] Osler also described pneumonia as "the old man's friend" as death was often quick and painless when there were much slower and more painful ways to die. Pada anak-anak, banyak dari kematian ini terjadi pada masa neonatus. [34], Prevention includes vaccination, environmental measures and appropriate treatment of other health problems. Pneumonia caused by Legionella may occur with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or confusion. [78] Immunizing health care workers decreases the risk of viral pneumonia among their patients. [22] It is believed that, if appropriate preventive measures were instituted globally, mortality among children could be reduced by 400,000; and, if proper treatment were universally available, childhood deaths could be decreased by another 600,000. Lebih dari 2 juta anak balita meninggal setiap tahun di seluruh dunia. Le quatrième moyen d'empêcher la propagation des virus et des bactéries pouvant causer la pneumonie consiste à se laver les mains de la bonne façon et fréquemment ou à employer un désinfectant pour les mains. Vaccination of infants against Haemophilus influenzae type B began in 1988 and led to a dramatic decline in cases shortly thereafter. Long-term antibiotics are usually adequate to treat a lung abscess, but sometimes the abscess must be drained by a surgeon or radiologist. 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